In the beginning of XX century the population of Kola Peninsula was very small — 8 690 people. Only in the summer during the seasonal fishing the population was grown significantly, especially on the Murman coast. For example, in Teriberka were lived only 42 people, but in the summer — more than 800.
The situation was changed after the Revolution when had began extensive research and development of Kola Peninsula. From 1920 till 1970 on Kola Peninsula had been constructed 11 cities, many industrial sites, one nuclear power plants, several hydropower plants, naval bases and Air Force bases, the roads, railroads and airports.
The Soviet era was the Heyday of Kola Peninsula. During this time the population of the region was grew 60 times: in 1920 on Kola Peninsula were lived 19 131 people, in 1989 the population was reached the peak — 1 146 757and from 1991 decreases. Nowadays (2017) on the Kola Peninsula are living only 757 621 people.
Nowadays on the Kola Peninsula 136 settlement: 16 towns, 11 small towns (urban-type settlement) and 109 villages 12 of which are uninhabited.