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Murmansk

Murmansk — the biggest city locates above the Arctic Circle.

The history of town began June 19 1915, when was started the construction of port. Later had began the building of railroad from Petersburg to Semenovskaya bay, and October 4, 1916 was founded Romanov-on-Murman, April 16, 1917 renamed to Murmansk. The first stone of the town was laid on the hill were later had been constructed the Palace of Culture named after S.M.Kirov.

In the winter of 1917 at Murmansk was established the British North Russia Squadron under Rear Admiral Thomas Kemp and from this time till 1920 the city was occupied by the British and American troops.

The Aliens had constructed in Murmansk narrow-gauge railway, called Decavil’ka by the name of inventor Paul Decauville; light-house, warehouse and Ferris wheel. The light-house, the warehouse and the cemetery are remained till nowadays.

The Decavil’ka was used like public transport till 1930th, when it was disassembled.

The German offensive on Murmansk was launched — Jun 29, 7 days later, than in rest of USSR, but was completely unsuccessful. The German troops stopped after 30 km, and front line not changed till October 1944 when Soviet troops were went on the offensive. But during the war Murmansk was bombed without stopping. By the number of bombs dropped on the town the Murmansk stays at 2th place after Stalingrad. June 18, 1942  on Murmansk were dropped 80 fougasse and 25 000 incendiary bombs. During the fire were burned 600 wooden houses, 7 concrete houses and more than 1000 sheds and wood-fires.

Despite hard bombing the port was working and served the convoys with weapons and other supplies sent from USA and Great Britain.

In 1974 the monument Alyosha was installed on the top of hill Zeleny Mys (Green cape). This year were expected Murmansk will get the Gold Star and name the Hero City, but it was happened 11years later.

In 1984 in Murmansk was opened the hotel “Arktika” (the Arctic, nowadays — Azimut hotel) — the tallest building above the Arctic Circle.

From January 1, 2015 Murmansk became longer at 6 km when to territory was added Roslyakovo, earlier — closed territory available only by passes. Nowadays the length of city by main streets is 24 km.

Murmansk is the main port at Northern sea route and main base of nuclear ice-breaker.

In the fall of 2016 was finished the construction of East bypass, and now under construction is railroad to Lavna where will be locate the coal and oil terminals.

 

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